With the recent acquisition of French turbine manufacturer Alstom, General Electric has now moved into a commanding worldwide position
in heavy electrical generation by gas and steam turbines. With the acquisition GE's market share will now be increased by 13%,
placing GE in the dominant position with over 49% of the total market by value.
Read FI Blog post for more info.
A new market analysis, prepared by Stuart Slade, Editor of Forecast International's Warships Forecast and Anti-Submarine Warfare Forecast, provides some interesting statistics regarding marine gas turbines. Historically, some 4,849 gas turbines of all sizes have been built by six manufacturers, of which 3,916 have been used for naval propulsion and 933 for on-board power requirements. Of these, about a third have been retired.
General Electric's LM2500 gas turbine, an aero derivative of the CF6 which powers many commercial transport aircraft, is expected to dominate the market for naval gas turbines by value of production. During the 2016-2029 timeframe, GE is projected to build 267 LM2500s of several variants to power naval ships of about a dozen countries. GE will build 211 in its Cincinnati plant, while Avio Aero in Italy, IHI in Japan, and MTU in Germany will also produce another 56 under a licensed arrangement. Rolls-Royce will run a close second, with 47% of the value market. The UK manufacturer's very efficient MT30 gas turbine (a Trent derivative) competes nose to nose against the LM2500 in power class and has been evaluated by the U.S. Navy to power the DDG 51 Arleigh Burke class Destroyers. However, it appears that the U.S. will stick with the LM2500. Rolls also produces a substantial number of a smaller gas turbine, the MT7 (3,000 to 5,000 shp) for the U.S. and other Navies.
In 1941, the U.S. Navy designed the Iowa class battleships that generated 212,000 shaft horsepower using a steam plant that had a machinery weight of 4,443 tons. That is 47.7 shp per ton. Today, four GE LM2500s or Rolls-Royce MT-30 gas turbines can generate the same power output with a machinery weight of 118 tons! That is a change in the Power-to-Weight Ratio from 47.7 shp per ton to 1,800 shp per ton - which equates to an improvement of about 3,800%! Now we know why gas turbines have replaced steam turbines in all modern warships.
Marine gas turbines are impacting ship design in yet another important manner.
Previously much of the weight from the steam turbines and associated boilers and gear train
was placed low down in the ship where they contributed to stability. Aviation derivative gas turbines,
which are quite light for the power they generate, sacrifice this advantage, making the designer's task more complex.
This can be addressed by designing the ship with an integrated fully electric propulsion system.
Essentially, this means that the gas turbines generate electricity that powers electric motors turning the ship's propeller shafts.
This eliminates gearing, as the power on the shafts can be controlled directly from the throttles.
The gas turbines can thus be placed virtually anywhere on the ship, revolutionizing the design process
and allowing designers greater flexibility in ship design.
For more info, please read our Special White Paper on Marine gas turbines by Stuart Slade.
Please also take a peak at our world class Industrial and Marine Turbine Forecast (Gas & Steam).
The United States, which now leads the world in natural gas production and is closing on first place in oil,
has 2.5 million miles of pipelines crisscrossing the country as well as connecting with other lines from neighboring countries.
Gas is compressed and oil is pumped by diesels or gas turbines which are fueled directly from the pipelines, while auxiliary power
for the stations is also drawn either from the main engines or from additional small diesels or GTs.
The maps shown in the links below are not current, but nevertheless provide insight into the incredible number
of pipelines and stations existing today.
Fore more info please see: U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor Stations Illustration and Pipelines Explained.
Makers of aviation turbofan engines will produce over 106,000 turbofan engines during the period 2016–2029 - and continuing beyond.
This astounding production run will be in support of the greatest re-equipment cycle for manned aircraft that the world has ever seen!
It will be largely a civil market. The world's airlines, spurred by expanding demand for airline travel, especially in developing countries,
are replacing their aging fleets with a whole new generation of transport aircraft. At the same time, a booming market for new business jets
is also creating new demand for modern turbofans. Breakthroughs in technology have produced much more fuel-efficient engines,
better materials and construction methods, plus advanced electronics, resulting in far more cost-effective aircraft.
On the military side, the F-35 Lightning II is also just entering into a re-equipment cycle which will run through the next twenty years and beyond and could well exceed 4,000 units. The F-35, which is powered by the Pratt & Whitney F135 turbofan, (73,000 lbs thrust) will be produced in three variants for the U.S. Air Force (F-35A), Navy (F-35C) and Marines (F-35B). It will replace many earlier generation fighters and is expected to develop a large export market. We are forecasting demand for more than 2,300 F135 engines during the period 2016-2029 alone, including depot spares, with much more to come.
By value, the big winners of this tremendous turbofan market through 2029 alone will be CFM International (30.5% / $314.8 billion), Pratt & Whitney (21.8% / $224.6 billion), GE Aviation (20.2% / $208.07 billion), and Rolls-Royce (19.9% / $205.5 billion). It should be noted that Williams International, Pratt & Whitney of Canada, and Honeywell will all produce large quantities of engines in support of smaller aircraft, but the relative sizes of these engines will rank the manufacturers well down in the value market.
At present, the largest power generating facility ever built is the Three Gorges Dam in China. The facility generates power by utilizing 32 Francis turbines, each of a capacity of 700 MW and two 50 MW turbines, totaling the installed capacity at 22,500 MW! There are presently no dams being built that will exceed this capacity. See List of the World's Largest Electric Power Plants.
The top eight largest generation facilities in the world are all hydro. The sixth largest operational facility is the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Washington State, which has a capacity of 6,809 MW. The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa (Japan) Nuclear facility at 8,212 MW previously ranked sixth, but all units at this facility are presently suspended from operation. See list of largest power stations in the world.
That's right; according to Wikipedia, U.S. has a power generation plant in Ashdown, Arkansas that produces 157 MW burning Black Liquor!!
Wow! No wonder it produces a lot of juice! Just kidding - here is the real explanation: It is a biomass facility for renewable Energy.
In industrial chemistry, black liquor is the waste product from the Kraft process when digesting pulpwood into paper pulp - removing lignin,
hemicelluloses and other extractives from the wood to free the cellulose fibers.
For more info click link and look under biomass.
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